I am at the beginning stages of this restoration and have found a few different methods of construction. In the 1901 catalog Rushton states "all exposed fastenings copper or brass". I found this to be exactly true when I took off the top row of planking to get to the rib tops in order to replace a few ribs. The ribs were attached to the inner gunwales using two 1/2" steel tacks that were rusted in place. The top planking was also held on with both copper tacks as well as 3/8" finish nails along the top edge. Maybe this use of steel fasteners was to cut cost on these first "prototype" wood canvas canoes, or did he use steel fasteners on his other boats of this time period? Anyway it was tough to get to get these out and replace them with copper tacks and silicon bronze ring nails.