Documentation by Garth Taylor.... "Canoe Construction in a Cree Cultural Tradition 1980" for the Canadian Museum of Civilization. In the Summer of 1979 John Kawapit, a Cree from Great Whale River in Quebec, built this canoe using traditional methods and materials. All wood components were of spruce (no cedar this far North). The use of canvas rather than birchbark for the hull began early in the 20th century and by 1908 was used nearly exclusively for it's use and durability. Nails were used rather than spruce roots on the gunwales and a exterior stem piece was also employed. The canvas was painted to make it waterproof.